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UD Bibliographies | UD Readings | Examples of UD | ADA and UD | Information and Technology for Developing Accessible Online Teaching | Links to UD Publication Online | Links to Media | Links to Other UD Resources

Universal Design Bibliographies

Universal Design in Cultural Settings

Elaine Ostroff Global Universal Design Educator's Network Westport, Massachusetts, USA

Annotated Listing of Selected Videos

Elaine Ostroff and
Polly Welch
Adaptive Environments Center; Boston, MA. USA and University of Oregon; Eugene, OR. USA

Center for Universal Design - Bibliography 

Center for Universal Design
North Carolina State University

Appendix A: Resource List from "The Universal Design File"

Molly Follette Story, James L. Mueller, and Ronald L. Mace
Center for Universal Design, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA


Universal Design Readings

A Brief History of Disability Rights Legislation in the United States

Polly Welch and Chris Palames

What is Universal Design?

Polly Welch

The Universal Design File: Designing for People of All Ages and Abilities

James L. Mueller and Ronald L. Mace

Social Justice in Architecture:Promoting Universal Design and Human Diversity in Architecture Education and Practice Through the Accreditation Process

Elaine Ostroff and Daniel G. Hunter

Additional Readings

Note: This page contains links to external web pages. These pages will appear in a new browser window. UD Education Online is not responsible for any content on these pages. If you have any questions regarding pages from an external web site, please contact the administrators of that site. Thank you.

Universal House

A Museum for Everyone 

Doing Universal Design 

Technology Enables Disabled Architects


Examples of UD

The Principles of Universal Design (Poster in PDF format)

Universal Design Exemplarssamples (Center for Universal Design)

Digital Models (University at Buffalo)

Video Clips (University at Buffalo)

A.D.A. Standards for Accessible Design: A series of Videotapes" sample (Center for Universal Design)

Transportation Facilities: Bus Stops, Terminals, and Transit Stations (Center for Universal Design)

Unlimited by Design Exhibit (IDEA Center)

Bad Human Factors Design


ADA and UD

This section highlights both the differences and the connections between the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Standards for Accessible Design and Universal Design. “What is Universal Design” is discussed at length in the “Learn” section of this site. Here we cross reference a range of materials on this and other sites by listing and linking teaching materials, articles and other media that help articulate the differences and connections. We also provide links to authoritative ADA resources on other sites.

Universal design is not a synonym or a euphemism for accessibility standards. Universal design can be distinguished from minimal compliance with accessibility standards in the way that the accessible features have been integrated into the overall design. This integration is important because it results in better design and avoids the stigmatizing quality of accessible features that have been added on late in the design process or as modifications after the design is complete. The process of integrating accessible features so they become integral to a design may be more challenging for the designer but the results may also be more satisfying.

Another important way in which universal design differs from accessibility requirements is that accessibility requirements are usually prescriptive whereas universal design is performance-based. Universal design does not have rigid standards or requirements but addresses usability issues more holistically. The Principles of Universal Design , published by the Center for Universal Design in 1997, articulate the breadth of the concept and provide guidelines for designers.

Teaching Content

Universal Design - Beyond the ADA
Universal Design Building Survey
Accessibility Regulations and a Universal Design Philosophy Inspire the Design Process


Accessibility and Universal Design: A Primer On U.S. Regulations And Emerging International Standards, March 2004
A Perspective on Universal Design (Ron Mace), 1998
Designs for Daily Living: Interpreting Universal Design, Winter/Spring 2004
Principles of Universal Design (ADA Distance Learning), 2000
Universal Design and the Americans with Disabilities Act: Not All Systems Are Created Equal­How Systems Design Can Expand Information Access

ADA Resources

Access Board
Department of Justice ADA Home page
ADA Basics On-line Course
ADA and Information Technology Centers
ADA Distance Learning
ADA Hot Links and Document Center
ADA Design: Common Errors and Omissions in Public Schools, March 2003


Information and Technology for Developing Accessible Online Teaching

How to Write Text Descriptions
Links to Key Resources for Design Educators
"Introduction to the Screen Reader with Neal Ewers"
Guide to Making Documents Accessible to People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired  (Jennifer Sutton)
Choosing Text Equivalents in Flash MX
Resources for Creating Accessible PDF files


Links to Universal Design Publication Online


 Authors: Marcus Ormerod, Mo Mohammadi

 This is a code of practice on accessibility and inclusive design that will be updated at 6 monthly intervals to reflect current UK best practice. It covers issues of principles and policies; development; external environments; education; buildings; transport; and useful information.

Accessible Design: Problems and Solutions

 Researchers: W. Bradley Fain et al (from GTRI)

A Literature Review to Support the ITTATC Needs Assessment. It is recognized that in industry, the primary barrier to the implementation of accessible design principles is a lack of understanding regarding the goals of accessible design and the misperception that accessible design is overly time consuming and cost prohibitive. In addition, there is a lack of specification in the literature defining what makes a product accessible. ITTATC is performing a needs assessment that will document the extent of the accessibility problems in the information technology and telecommunications industries and provide an understanding of what project stakeholders perceive as possible solutions. This Literature Review is one element of this project.

Building a World Fit for People: Designers with Disabilities at Work

 Authors: Elaine Ostroff, Mark Limont, Daniel Hunter

This publication describes the career development of 21 designers with disabilities from around the world. The book promotes the design professions as a viable career opportunity for people with disabilities.

Case Studies on Universal Design

 Author: Jim Mueller

From 1994 -1997, James Mueller directed a project for the Center for Universal Design funded by the US Department of Education. This project, Case Studies on Universal Design, explored how the US business community applies the Principles of Universal Design (Center for Universal Design, 1997) to its business practices.

In 1999, the Center for Universal Design embarked on a 5-year program to further study companies efforts toward applying universal design in their businesses. Companies studied in the previous project were revisited, as well as 14 companies not previously studied.

The following eleven case studies include eight case studies completed between 2000-2003, as well as three 1997 case studies updated with recent developments in the companies‚ universal design efforts:

Thirty-eight individual business applications of universal design were studied through this project. Fourteen of these examples were developed into business case studies and published as the Case Studies on Universal Design in 1997. One of these was fully developed into a business teaching case in 1997 through Design Management Institute and Harvard Business School and is distributed worldwide by Harvard Business Publishing.

Curriculum Transformation and Disability: Implementing Universal Design in Higher Education

 Editor: Jeanne Higbee, University of Minnesota

The purpose of the book is to introduce readers to the concepts of Universal Design (UD) and Universal Instructional Design (UID). This collection of essays addresses learning both within and outside the classroom, recognizing the role higher education plays in developing the “whole” person.

Designing for the 21st Century II Conference Proceedings

 Editor: Elaine Ostroff

International compilation of papers published online in conjunction with the Designing for the 21st Century: An International Conference on Universal Design, held in Providence, RI, in June 2000. Adaptive Environments, primary sponsor.
Website: http://www.adaptenv.org/21century/proceedings.php

Diversity in Design

 Editors: Beth Tauke and Alex Bitterman

Forum for in-depth and timely analysis of scholarly issues related to diversity, and, particularly, issues related to inclusive design. Through peer-reviewed articles that examine diversity issues in design education and interviews with leading scholars/educators, the journal encourages a global community of designers and educators to create new knowledge, partnerships, and gateways to inclusive design education.

The journal is a pioneering technological initiative that employs the most up-to-date information delivery technologies to ensure seamless information retrieval in a fully accessible W3C-compliant format. An invaluable resource for the multi-disciplinary academic design community, Diversity in Design is the only publication of its kind.

European Concept of Accessibility

 The European Concept for Accessibility 1996 was the result of a request from the European Commission, made in 1987. The Concept was based on the universal design principles. The Concept was supported by all members of the steering group present in Doorn, The Netherlands, 2 March 1996. In the 2003 edition, the social reasons are furthermore developed to create environments for all and the improvement that Europe can achieve by doing this.

Facts Online, Volume 6, Winter 2002 (on-line journal)

 Author: Several

A publication of The University of Maine’s Center for Community Inclusion, this special issue is dedicated to the topic of Universal Design as applied to learning. It provides current information and resources on this exciting new way of teaching and learning. Digital texts, multiple modalities, and brain research provide educators ways of creating opportunities to engage in learning. The articles include universal design overviews, technology, challenging behavior, assessment and additional resources.

Information Technology and Disabilities, Vol. IX No. 2, December, 2003 (on-line journal)

 Author: Several

Issue of this online publication that deals with Public Policy Issues: Access to Information and Information Technology. Article titled "Universal Design: Is It Really About Design?" is directly available via the Links to Media page.

Information Technology and Disabilities, Vol. VIII No. 1, January, 2002 (on-line journal)

 Author: Several

Issue of this online publication that deals with Distance Learning and Accessibility issues. Article titled "The Design of Accessible Distance Education Environments that Use Collaborative Learning" is directly available via the Links to Media page.

Innovate (Publication of the Helen Hamlyn Center)

 Editor: Various

Published twice a year, innovate is the research and development journal of the Small Business Programme. This research digest on themes related to innovation through inclusive design is tailored to the interests of small businesses. Through interviews, design exemplars and reports, it looks at the issues affecting small firms, disabled and older users and those involved in the provision of goods and services in the care and disability sectors. Case studies of good practice are highlighted. For example, Issue 5 (spring 2003) “looks at the five projects entered in the DBA design Challenge 2002 covering packaging, communications, transport, retail environments and the new area of 'smart wearables.’” And Issue 6 (spring 2004) 'showcases the six short-listed projects for the DBA Design Challenge 2003, encompassing visual communication, interaction and product design.’”

Our Homes, Our Neighborhoods: Building an Inclusive City

 Editor: Social Planning Council of Ottawa

On September 20, 2003, the Social Planning Council of Ottawa (SPC) held a community forum to discuss strategies for developing inclusive neighborhoods with inclusive housing as the cornerstone. The event brought together almost 100 people including residents, organizations and agencies, representatives of the City of Ottawa, faith organizations, and other concerned stakeholders who were interested in advancing more inclusive communities and housing in Ottawa. This is the report of that meeting (Please note that this is a PDF document and so may not be accessible to you)

Removing Barriers to Health Care: A Guide for Health Professionals

 Author: Ronald L. Mace, FAIA

This booklet provides guidelines and recommendations to help health care professionals ensure equal use of the facility and services by all their patients. This guide gives health care providers a better understanding of how to improve both the physical environment and personal interactions with patients with disabilities. Ron Mace was the author and Leslie Young the editor of the publication that was produced as a collaborative effort by the Center for Universal Design and the North Carolina Office on Disability and Health.

Removing Barriers to Health Clubs and Fitness Facilities, A Guide for Accommodating all members, Including People with Disabilities and Older Adults

 Produced as a collaborative effort by the North Carolina Office on Disability and Health and the Center for Universal Design, this well-illustrated booklet includes guidelines for creating accessible spaces in Fitness facilities, along with guidelines for selecting equipment and recommendations for assisting people with disabilities.

Research House for the Environmentally Hypersensitive

 Publisher: Canadian Housing and Morgage Corporation

This research house was designed and contructed to demonstrate as well as evaluate a range of innovative features for clean and healthy living for people who suffer from allergies, asthma and other conditions that make them vulnerable to the built environment. It includes technical details for interior and exterior features, highlighting finishes and excellent ventilation systems.

Strategies for Teaching Universal Design

 Editor: Polly Welch

Well-illustrated case studies from twenty-one design programs around the country describe innovative approaches for teaching universal design. The book describes the teaching experiences of the faculty in architecture, interior design, landscape architecture and industrial design who were awarded stipends from Adaptive Environments to participate in the 1993-94 Universal Design Education Project. The following is the pdf version. Published by Adaptive Environments and MIG Communications in November 1995. 294 pages, available from Adaptive Environments.

Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning

 Authors: David H. Rose & Anne Meyer, with Nicole Strangman & Gabrielle Rappolt

This book is the first comprehensive presentation of the principles and applications of Universal Design for Learning (UDL)—a practical, research-based framework for responding to individual learning differences and a blueprint for the modern redesign of education.

Teaching Universal Design

 Authors: B. Kennig, C. Ryhl

Report prepared by AAoutils “Design for All” project. This document describes a number of examples of teaching in universal design at schools of design and architecture around the world.

The Universal Design File: Designing for People of All Ages and Abilities

 Authors: Molly Follette Story, MS, IDSA, James L. Mueller, MA, IDSA, Ronald L. Mace, FAIA

The Universal Design File discusses the history of universal design and provides excellent illustrations of each principle. Seven in-depth case studies are profiled. This book is the first comprehensive look at the concept and application of universal design in products and the built environment. It is available for download as a set of PDF files. Published in 1998, the spiral-bound 164-page book can be purchased from the Center for Universal Design.

Traditional Neighborhood Design

 Author: Philip S. Dommer

This article makes a strong connection between successful traditional neighborhood developments (TNDs)in pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods and the 'lasting concepts of universal design.'

TNDs emphasize the concept of community and independence from the almighty automobile, which dominates the lifestyles of those who choose to live in conventional suburban developments (CSDs).

Trails for All People

 Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the Arizona State Committee on Trails (ASCOT); Bureau of Land Management; City of Phoenix; Maricopa Association of Governments; National Park Service Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program; and Pinal County Trails Association to help create trails for ALL people to use. (Please note that this is a PDF document and so may not be accessible to you)

Universal Design and More: Facilitating Learning for All Students

 Author: Karen Nykorchuk McCaleb

Powerpoint presentation from the National Center on Low-Incidence Disabilities. The presentation presents the Principles of Universal Design and then the Principles as applied to education.

Universal Design in the Workplace

 Authors: Yoko Saito, Shiro Nitanai, and Kanya Shiokawa

This information appeared on the RICS web site (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors) and is based on continuing research by the Universal Design Committee of the Japan Facility Management Promotion Association. It represents the researchers’ approach to developing universal design guidelines for workplace design, and includes the identification of critical success factors (CSFs) that play a key role in facilities planning and assessment.

Universal Design New York

 Editors: Gary Scott Danford and Beth Tauke

This is an online, interactive version of the illustrated guidelines prepared for the City of New York for use by two groups. The first are the public agencies and the design and construction agencies hired by the City. The second group includes the developers and designers of privately constructed facilities. It is also available in pdf.

Universal Design, Planning and Design for All

 Authors: Finn Aslaksen, Steinar Bergh, Olav Rand Bringa, Edel Kristen Heggem

The Norwegian State Council on Disability commissioned this booklet. The preface states: We must continually seek new ways to improve the conditions of disabled people. New ideas and practical solutions must be sought to bring society closer to the ideal of full participation and equality of status of people with disabilities. New ideas and practical solutions should be investigated to bring society closer to the aim of full participation and equal status. We hope this report represents a step in this direction. We have examined the concept of universal design and discussed it in relation to the principle of equal status, planning, architecture and product design.

Unlimited by Design

 This is an online version of a traveling exhibit celebrating designers who have embraced the challenge and opportunity of universal design. It was originally curated at the Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian National Design Museum. See website for traveling exhibit information.

Visit-ability: an Approach to Universal Design in Housing

 Editors: Steve Truesdale, Edward Steinfeld

This booklet published by the RERC on Universal Design, University at Buffalo, provides an overview of the basics on visitability as well as some case studies of visitable homes.


Links to Media

Build Environment

A Trend With Universal Appeal: Home Design Concept is Moving into Mainstream

 Author: Paul Restuccia, The Boston Herald

Date: April 25, 2003
Citation: Boston held its first full-fledged conference on universal design with an emphasis on affordable housing, but the concept is gaining ground among an increasing number of nonprofit and market-rate housing developers who want to build maximum flexibility into their homes. Universal design posits that good design is that which works for the greatest number of people - whether they are old or young, healthy or disabled.

A Whole World of Universal Design

 Author: Stephen Milne, Principal at Modernity Design, NYC

Date: Fall 2001
Citation: Published at CORE77. "Integrating Differences: Theories & Applications of Universal Design" was the subject of a symposium given at the Fashion Institute of Technology (F.I.T.) and co-hosted by the State University of New York at Buffalo, New York (SUNY). Organizers assembled an impressive, international list of experts from a variety of disciplines to present the latest in Universal Design applications. This article resulted from that symposium.


 Author: Mike Kennedy, American School and University

Date: October 1, 2003
Citation: Since the Americans with Disabilities Act was enacted in 1990, schools have upgraded their student housing to provide better accommodations. This article discusses this in the context of a new book by University of Minnesota General College's Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy (CRDEUL). The referenced book is titled Curriculum Transformation and Disability: Implementing Universal Design in Higher Education.

Accessibility Regulations and a Universal Design Philosophy inspire the Design Process

 Author: Barbara Knecht

Date: 2004
Citation: Instead of stifling creativity, a climate of access pushes architects to be inventive. Accessibility is a mandate; universal design is a movement. Accessible, adaptable, and visitable environments are covered in the codes, standards, and regulations. Architects have practiced "sustainable" and "universal" design since long before they became Sustainable Design and Universal Design. Energy efficiency and accessibility have made their way into the codes. There will always be architects who doggedly meet the minimum prescribed standards, but the best examples of both will continue to come from those who embrace the concepts, push the technology, and use them as a platform for invention.

Accessibility, usability and universal design

Authors: Susanne Iwarsson, Agneta Ståhl

Date: 1/2003
Citation: Article appears in Lund Virtual Medical Journal (Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Sweden), February 2003 Issue. The article originally appeared in Disabil Rehabil 2003 Jan 21;25(2):57-66. Susanne Iwarsson and Agneta Stahl use a synthesizing approach in positioning and defining three key concepts used in disability research and also applied in community planning: accessibility, usability and universal design.

Accessible Design Should be a Given

 Author: Whitney Gould

Date: June 2003
Citation: If more architects were disabled, it's a good bet that our buildings and bridges would be more accessible. But in most cases, you probably wouldn't even notice. Accommodations for people of all degrees of physical ability and infirmity would be seamlessly incorporated from the get-go…. But in the 21st century, there is no excuse for making inclusiveness an afterthought. It should be a given.

Affordable Housing: Designing an Amercian Asset

 Author/reviewer: Architecture Week

Date: Spring 2004
Citation: Description of an exhibit at The National Building Museum (February 28-August 8, 2004). The 18 projects illustrated in this exhibition, from across the nation and in a range of urban and rural settings, demonstrate that well designed developments can offer new opportunities for the least wealthy Americans, while creating real value as assets for their surrounding communities. The projects show an increased recognition of the needs of tenants, and display sensitivity to the human experience in all spaces, from public and private areas to transition spaces such as entrances, porches, lobbies, hallways, and foyers. Many provide flexibility for different family types, easy expansion, and personalization.

Are We Ready for Elderly Tourists?

 Authors: SOCIO Economic & Environmental Research Institute

Date: 2004
Citation: Tourism is an important foreign exchange earner for Malaysia and the elderly tourist sector is a growing one. The purpose of this article is to highlight the increasing number of elderly tourists, the need for barrier-free and accessible tourist spots to cater for this segment of tourists, the existing state of such facilities in major Malaysian cities and finally
the resources available to make Penang a barrier-free tourist destination. (Note that this publication is in PDF and may not be accessible to all)

Awareness Days: Some Alternatives to Simulation Exercises

 Author: Art Blaser

Date: 9/2003
Citation: Originally the cover story in the September/October Disability Rag's Ragged Edge print magazine, this is now posted in the online version of Ragged Edge.

Building a world fit for people: "Nothing about us without us"

 Reviewer: Maria Morskieft

Date: 11/2002
Citation: Review appeared in Disability World,in the November-December 2002 issue of the e-zine which is published bi-monthly. An excerpt notes, "The book celebrates the inspiration these designers have given to their colleagues, to their surroundings and to the designing world in general ... and they show the importance of seeing people with a disability not only as consumers of design but also as a source of information or as a designer themselves."

Can Accessible/Universal Design Also Be Aesthetic?

 Author: Karen G. Stone

Date: 2000
Citation: Published on DisWeb (a platform for issues of concern to people with disabilities and others who wish to increase their awareness of these issues), sponsored by Candy & Charles Creative Concepts. The author’s personal quest for aesthetically pleasing accessible/UD homes that entailed photographing Scandinavian homes with accessible and universal design features (also see companion article, Photographs Demonstrating Aesthetic Universal Design which actually shows the author’s photographs.)
Website: http://disweb.org/design/design_one.html

Chicago Botanic Garden Enables Hobbyists of All Ages, Abilities

 Author: AIA

Date: 2004
Citation: For the many who visit the Chicago Botanic Garden, the 11,000-square-foot Beuhler Enabling Garden is their own piece of heaven in the luscious greenery. Desirous of a place to dig dirt or prune plants but unable to pursue traditional “hands and knees” gardening, they come to the Chicago garden to find the tools that can help them partake in a favorite activity at any age, ability, or stage of life.
Website: http://www.aia.org/aiarchitect/thisweek04/tw0903/0903pw_enabling.htm

Doing Universal Design

 Reviewer: B.J. Novitski

Date: 1 August 2001
Citation: CD-ROM Review: Universal Design Exemplars by the Center for Universal Design, North Carolina State University, 2000

How to Retire at Home

 Author: Allan Nakatsui, Architectural Engineer with Access

Citation: Most of us have dreams of retiring in our own homes and never having to move again. Unfortunately, life happens, and many of us will have to give up this dream due to a mobility issue related to aging, an injury, or a medical condition. The article discusses how the right renovations can make this possible with reference to Canada.
Website: http://www.homebase.ca/articles/cal_retire_home.asp

Interiors by Design, Bringing down the barriers

 Author: Emmet Pierce, San Diego Union-Tribune Staff Writer

Date: 10/13/2002
Citation: Article appears on Am Able site and it originally appeared in The San Diego Union - Tribune; Oct 13, 2002; pg. I.1 Accessible housing advocates Susan Mack and Robert Novick are on the same journey, but they've taken distinctly different paths. Mack, an occupational therapist, has worked with Pacific Century Homes to create 17 "universal design" houses in suburban Murrieta. ....

Link to Review of Universal Design Handbook

 Reviewer: A. Vernon Woodworth

Date: 9/2002
Citation: Sept/Oct 2002 issue of ArchitectureBoston

Notes from Metropolis: Inclusion

 Author: Susan S. Szenasy, Editor in Chief

Date: August/September 2002
Citation: There's only one man in a wheelchair inside the cavernous Schimmel Auditorium and he's behind the last row of seats. He's attending a public hearing about the future of the World Trade Center site. Real issues like how to build the twenty-first-century city and make it accessible, environmentally sensitive, poetic, inspiring, secure (for users as well as for their protectors, like firefighters and police) were on the public's agenda that night. The article addresses the meeting and the author’s reaction.

Recent Columns from Louis Tenenbaum

 Author: Louis Tenenbaum, Independent living strategist, co

Date: 1/2000-Present
Citation: Mr. Tenenbaum is a regular columnist for HousingZone.com. The titles of the archived articles are: Visitability and National Aging in Place Week, The Basics, The Senior Network, Universal Design: For Now and Later, Universal Guidelines, Understanding the Seniors Market, What is Remodeling to Age in Place?, Senior Remodeling and other titles.

Responses of the Public to Residential Universal Design Features

 Authors: Margaret A. Christenson, MPH, OTR, FAOTA, et al

Date: 2000
Citation: Lifease® conducted a survey on a home with Universal design features. This house was visited by several thousand people. They were asked to respond to several of the features included in the home. The results of that survey are included in this article.

Ropes Courses for All

 Authors: Karyn Martin, Bob Fulton

Date: March/April 1999
Citation: Originally appeared in Camping Magazine (publication of American Camping Association) and available from Universal Bridges. The time for universal concepts and inclusion in ropes courses has arrived. While not every camp can meet every inclusion need, every camp director can begin to incorporate universal concepts into their camp’s challenge activities. Also available in .pdf

Strive for Universal Utility

 Author: Daphne Allen, Editor

Date: September 2003
Citation: Originally Published in PMPN (Pharmaceutical and Medical Packaging News), September 2003, and available on it’s affiliate web site Medical devicelink. Universal Design encourages drug packagers to do something new—to consider every user during design. Even CPSC’s test protocol doesn’t do that, leaving out of its testing the oldest of seniors. Perhaps Universal Design will help refine today’s packages so that no one is left behind.

Technology’s helping hand

 Author: In-Sung Yoo, USA Today

Date: 7/6/2003
Citation: On July 7, 2003, USA Today featured the RERC on Technology Transfer (T2 RERC) in an article highlighting the universally-designed "Lids Off™ Jar Opener" that is now marketed by Black and Decker. The article discusses the principles of Universal Design and briefly describes NIDRR's Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center (RERC) program.

The Universal Design Home

 Author: In-Sung Yoo, USA Today

Date: 7/6/2003
Citation: On July 7, 2003, USA Today featured the RERC on Technology Transfer (T2 RERC) in an article highlighting the universally-designed "Lids Off™ Jar Opener" that is now marketed by Black and Decker. The article discusses the principles of Universal Design and briefly describes NIDRR's Rehabilitation EngiAuthor: Deena Maniscalchi
Citation: Excerpted from the Springfield Union News and available at The Home Store web site. Have you ever noticed that most houses have been designed and built to suit the "average" American adult... a young, able-bodied, six-foot tall male. Realistically, this does not describe the average home dweller. The result: a home where light switches are too high for children, electrical outlets too low for the arthritic, .... Welcome to a new era in housing design - The Universal Design Home, a residence that has been created to be usable by all family members, whether young or old, physically fit or challenged.neering Research Center (RERC) program.

Universal Design

 Author: James Rydeen, American School and University

Date: May 1, 1999
Citation: Article discusses how converting an existing school into a user-friendly building for all students, staff and community presents one of the most unique challenges for a school district. Many people do not understand the difficulties encountered in remodeling for the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), or for the curriculum, and program enhancements and entitlements that have been added and mandated by state and federal governments.

Universal Design and Preservation Can Live Under the Same Roof

 Author: Ryan Suda

Citation: Published at Half-the-Planet.com. Often, those features that characterize a building as historic are the very elements that pose obstacles to accessibility. Reconciling the demands of preservation and accessibility requires flexibility, and a willingness to think beyond the details of legislation. This article talks about a couple of historical renovations and the related accessibility issues.

Universal Design Handbook

 Reviewers: Cherie Lebbon, Pamela Heckel, Sally Levine, Steve

Date: 2/2002-3/2002
Citation: Customer reviews, Amazon.com

Universal Kitchen and Bathroom Planning: Design That Adapts to People

 Reviewer: David Wihowski

Date: 9/5/2000
Citation: Customer Review, Amazon.com

Information Design

A Multimedia Resource for Inclusive Community Service

 Authors: Institute for Community Inclusion and Emily E. Mil

Date: 2002
Citation: Supporting efforts by the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS) to increase the participation of people with disabilities in national service programs, a CNCS Fellow documented the exchange of talents and opportunities between national service programs and individuals with disabilities. This resulted in a multimedia resource, part documentary and part training tool, featuring voices, images, and ideas meant to bolster the inclusion of people with disabilities and the communities in which they serve.

Anyone, Anywhere Access to Community-oriented Services

 Authors: Pier-Luigi Emiliani, Michael Pieper, et al

Date: July 2001
Citation: ERCIM News online edition, No.46, July 2001. PALIO, a new project recently funded by the European Commission’s Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme, builds on previous European research and technological development efforts to provide a novel understanding of anyone, anywhere access to community-oriented services. This brief article reports on the aims and objectives of the project, as well as its potential contributions to the universal access community in Human Computer Interaction.

In Other Words … Communicating Across a Life Span … Universal Design in Print and Web ....

 Author: Helen Osborne, M.Ed, OTR/L, President, Health Lite

Date: 1/2001
Citation: Article appears in On Call, January 2001 issue. Universal design is an approach to design that not only addresses specific physical disabilities, but also takes into account a wide array of physical, cognitive, and linguistic abilities of people throughout the world over an entire life span. This article includes some ways health care providers can use universal design principles in print and Web-based communications.

Learning-Impaired Prod Changes

 Author: Arlene Levinson, AP National Writer

Date: September 2000
Citation: Originally at dailynews.yahoo.com and now available via Cal State San Marcos web site. A terrific teaching article about how even small changes based on "ADA compliance" actually facilitate different learning styles.
Website: http://www.csusm.edu/accessibility/onlinecourses/yahoo-prodchanges.htm

The Application of Universal Instructional Design to ESL

 Author: Kregg C. Strehorn, Universidad Católica de Temuco,

Date: March 2001
Citation: Published in The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VII, No. 3, March 2001. UID aims at full inclusion in the classroom by viewing all students within a continuum of learning abilities. Thus, a course “no matter the subject” can be designed in which an array of learning approaches and teaching strategies are stressed so that all students can participate fully despite any type of learning style or disability. The author believes that ESL and UID are a natural fit.
Website: http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Strehorn-UID.html

The Design of Accessible Distance Education Environments That Use Collaborative Learning

 Authors: Katrina T. Schenker & Lawrence A. Scadden, Ph.D.,

Date: January 2002
Citation: Published in Information Technology and Disabilities, Vol. VIII No. 1 January, 2002. ISSN 1073-5127 It is assumed that new technology enhances opportunities for disabled students in higher education. Adequate research data is needed to assess the effectiveness of technology for enhancing learning and to demonstrate how people who have been marginalized by social, economic, and physical situations best use the technology. This article reports the goals and efforts of a pilot project designed to study the development and testing of optimal methods for facilitating learning through the use of information technology by all students, including those with disabilities.

The Inclusive Design Guidelines for HCI

 Reviewer: Rita Lauria

Date: July 2003
Citation: In Inclusive Design Guidelines for HCI, editors Colette Nicolle and Julio Abascal pull together a wealth of advice for human-computer interaction (HCI) practitioners and present a range of inclusive design guidelines that exist for HCI.

Universal Design for Learning

 Author: David Rose, Assoc. Ed., with Bob Dolan, Guest

Date: Fall 2000
Citation: JSET (Journal of Special Education Technology, Volume 15, Number 4, Fall 2000. Educational assessment can be used to inform student instruction, assuming it is used properly. However, this powerful educational tool is used improperly far too often. This column discusses some of the limitations of current assessment practice and how application of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) concepts can improve assessment accuracy and its applicability to instruction.
Website: http://jset.unlv.edu/15.4/asseds/rose.html

Universal Design Makes Assessments Fairer and More Accurate

 Author: Brian Doore, University of Maine, CCI

Date: Winter 2002
Citation: Published in Facts Online, the newsletter of LEARNS (Maine’s Statewide Systems Change Initiative for Inclusive Education), Volume 6, Winter 2002. Right now there is a revolution happening at test development centers around the nation and around the world. Principles of Universal design are being applied to one of the most influential aspects of education – assessment. This revolution began in architecture, and is now spreading to all aspects of education, including assessment.

Universal Design of Distance Learning

 Author: Sheryl Burgstahler, PhD, University of Washington

Date: January 2002
Citation: Published in Information Technology and Disabilities, Vol. VIII No. 1 January, 2002. ISSN 1073-5127 The article discusses how “Increasing access to more students is a common reason given for providing instruction in a distance learning format. However, these access arguments usually focus on people separated by distance and time and rarely include consideration of students with disabilities. In fact, the design of many distance learning courses erects barriers to the full participation of students and instructors with some types of disabilities.”

Universal Design: Is It Really About Design?

 Author: Jim Tobias, Inclusive Technologies

Date: December 2003
Citation: Universal design (UD) of information technology products is usually portrayed as either an approach to design or a set of recommended and deprecated features. In either case, the focus of UD advocates has been on design per se. However, there is evidence that informational issues are the principal barriers to broader market success for UD. Consumers (and clinicians, caregivers, and third-party payers) are not sufficiently aware of the benefits of “UD products” or mobilized to shop for them.


Links to Other Universal Design Resources

Note: This page may contain some links to external web pages for further information. The UD Education Online is not responsible for any content on these pages. If you have any questions regarding pages from external web sites, please contact the administrators of that site. Thank-you.

AAoutils- Design for All (Europe)
A European project developed in response to the Council of Europe resolution on universal design education. Partner organizations from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Poland are involved in creating curriculum for design for all. A Yahoo-based group site invites interested people to interact; contact Ivor Ambrose below.
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Universal Design and Home of the Future Detailed views, features, and interactive tours of universally designed homes.

AccessIT (US)
AccessIT promotes the use of electronic and information technology (E&IT) for students and employees with disabilities in educational institutions at all academic levels. This Web site features the AccessIT Knowledge Base, a searchable, growing database of questions and answers regarding accessible E&IT. It is designed for educators, policy makers, librarians, technical support staff, and students and employees with disabilities and their advocates.

Adaptive Environments Center (US)
UD Conferences, Access to Public Schools, New England ADA and Accessible IT Center, universal design education and consulting, Access to Design Professions, publications and more.

Aging Workforce and Accessible Technology (Microsoft) (US)
The effects of America's aging workforce are expected to significantly impact business growth and productivity in the near future. The resources here detail the coming demographic shift and illustrate how accessible technology can equip employers to face the challenges posed by this demographic trend.

AIA – Design for Aging Knowledge Community
The AIA Knowledge Communities are groups of people who share common challenges, opportunities or a passion for a given topic, and who collaborate to deepen their understanding of that topic through ongoing learning and knowledge sharing. This Knowledge Community advocates excellence in design for today's aging population.
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Berkeley Prize Competition (US)
Through the annual essay competition and other endeavors, the Berkeley Prize seeks to develop among students of architecture a shared motivation to not only express their ideas and concepts about creating a Social Art of Architecture, but in doing so provide the building blocks to realize this goal. It asserts that the architect's primary client, even in the execution of the individual project, ultimately, was society itself.

Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) (US)

CAST is a research-based center that includes resources, programs and products for students of all ages and abilities. Home of Teaching Every Student (TES, supporting educators in learning about and practicing Universal Design for Learning (UDL).

Center for Universal Design (US)
Home of the RERC on Universal Design at NCSU, the Principles of Universal Design, Universal Design Exemplars,The Universal Design File, Center for Universal Design Newsline, universal design history publications, and more.

Centre for Education in the Built Environment (CEBE)(UK)
The primary purpose of CEBE is to provide discipline based support for learning and teaching in the built environment, in the subject communities of Architecture, Town Planning, Landscape, Building and Surveying. There is a special interest group on “Inclusive Design”
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Children, Youth and Environments (CYE)
Now online, this is a refereed journal and multidisciplinary, international network dedicated to improving the lives of young people. The journal targets researchers, policy makers and professionals and is guided by a distinguished Editorial Advisory Board.

Code of Practice: Removing Communication Barriers for Travellers with Disabilities (CANADA)
The purpose of this Code is to improve the communication of transportation-related information for persons with disabilities on a systemic basis as they use the (Canadian) federal transportation system. While this Code focuses on the information needs of persons with disabilities while they travel, the information enhancements contained in the Code will benefit all travellers. The Canadian Transportation Agency wishes to emphasize that this Code presents minimum standards that transportation service providers are expected to meet and urges them to strive to exceed these standards wherever feasible.

Concrete Change (US)
Focus on visitability in homes, all homes, the most basic accessibility features. National and international laws, amendments, guidelines.

CPB/WGBH National Center for Accessible Media (US)
Resources for software accessibility, Descriptive Video Services, other multi-media resources.

Design Corps (US)
Design Corps is a non-profit group whose mission is to find ways to offer quality, affordable design services to the many who don't currently have it available. Conferences include 'Structures for Inclusion.'

Design Council – About Inclusive Design (UK)
This web site has many resources on “Inclusive Design.” The best way to find the resources is to “search” on the phrase “Inclusive Design.” A few notable pieces are: “About Inclusive Design” - A guide to inclusive design, introducing current thinking applied to public and private sectors, highlighting future trends and challenges and including facts, examples and a glossary. “What Do I Do Next?” - Advice on introducing and practicing inclusive design, including FAQs, tips, events, competitions, standards and regulations, a reading list and signposts to further information. “Oxo International - Good Grips kitchen tools”- The Good Grips range takes the strain out of spud bashing and sets new usability standards. “Exclusively for Everyone, November 2002” - What is inclusive design and what does it mean for designers?
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Design for Future Needs (Europe)
Design helps successful businesses stand out in increasingly competitive global markets by creating unique products and services that meet customers’ needs. Absolutely vital to the work designers do are the tools and techniques they use to understand people’s behavior and envision the future. Design for Future Needs is a Europe-wide research project that set out to find out how those methods can help EU policy makers to plan effectively to improve quality of life.

Design for Our Future Selves - Helen Hamlyn Research Center (UK)
Home of the iDesign project, Design for Ageing network, Royal College of Art design fellowships and more.

Disability World (US)
A web-zine dedicated to advancing an exchange of information and research about the international independent living movement of people with disabilities. The web-zine was produced March 2000-May 2004. The full archives are on the site.
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Draware (Ireland)
Educational research project focused on architectural education, at University College, Dublin.

Enable Age Project (SWEDEN)
Examines, in a European perspective, the home environment as a determinant for autonomy, participation, well-being and health in old age and by this create recommendations for healthy housing solutions across Europe. Especially in very old age, Especially when living in private households, Especially when living alone, and Different In different European countries (e.g., West vs. East)

EQUAL Ageing and Disability Network (UK)
The EQUAL Research Network is open to all those who are interested in the contribution which inter-disciplinary user focused research with an engineering, design or physical science perspective can make to improving the quality of life of older people, people with disabilities, and society in general. At the heart of the Network are those who are actively engaged with undertaking and implementing ageing- related and disability-related research - and researchers, those who are directly involved with older people and disabled people, and intermediaries of all types.
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European Concept for Accessibility (Luxembourg)
Home of the European expert collaboration to define broad concept of accessibility.

European Congress on Media and Disability (EUROPE)
This website was established following the European Congress on Media and Disability, which took place on 14-16 June 2003 in Athens, Greece. The goal of the website is to promote the inclusion of people with disabilities in the mass media today, including television, fiction, news, and advertisements.
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European Design for All e-Accessibility Network (EDeAN)
The (EDeAN) secretariat was created to aid and support the newly formed network of European National Contact Centers (NCCs), which are working with Design for All, e-Accessibility and Assistive Technology issues. The 15 European National Contact Centers form the primary nodes of the EDeAN network. Each NCC is also responsible for a national Design for All e-Accessibility network in their own country.

European Institute for Design and Disability (Europe)
Home of Design-for-All, Crisp and Clear magazine, links to EIDD affiliates, and more.

Exploring Disability Through Moving Image Media (UK)
During the European Year of Disabled People 2003, the British Film Institute, in partnership with Disability Equality in Education, developed an educational resource pack, supported by in-service training for teachers and cinema-based events for primary and secondary pupils. Many of these resources are available online.
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Georgia Tech Research on Accessible Distance Education (GRADE) (US)

"Provides research, training, technical assistance and information dissemination to improve the accessibility of distance education for students with disabilities at universities and colleges throughout the nation."
GRADE is developed by the Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access (CATEA) at Georgia Tech (GT) in parternship with IDET Communication Inc. (IDET). Current resources on the site include: Accesselearning (10 module on-line learning course), Fact Sheets, and Accessible Course Design.
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House of the Future at University of Aveiro (Portugal)

This Portuguese design project for the House of the Future started in June 2003. In close cooperation with AveiroDOMUS (an university - enterprise association, currently including 12 companies from the housing field and the University of Aveiro), the project is meant to engage a number of multidisciplinary teams of professionals and academics in order to conceive, specify, draw and build the House of the Future.

IDEA Center (US)
Home of the RERC on Universal Design at Buffalo, Bright Ideas, publications, software, videos on accessibility as well as universal design.

Inclusive Design Curriculum Network (IDCnet)
IDCnet is focused on the design of information and communication products, systems and services. The activities of IDCnet are aimed to support the objectives of eEurope and the European Secretariat for the Design for All e-acessibility Network (EDeAN) in regard to the development of curriculum recommendations in the area of Design for All in ICT.
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Inclusive Design Discussion List (UK)
Discussion list for the discussion of issues about an inclusive design process and its application. Inclusive design is applicable in all fields of design and therefore this list covers a wide range of design disciplines.
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Inclusive Design Education Resource (UK)
The Design Council has worked in collaboration with the Helen Hamyln Research Centre to produce a series of case studies based on industry-funded projects by Research Associates at the Royal College of Art.

Information Technology Technical Assistance and Training Center (US)
The Information Technology Technical Assistance and Training Center (ITTATC) is charged with providing accessibility training and technical assistance related to Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act and Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act. We want to help our audiences - industry, state officials, trainers, and consumers - to understand the requirements of Sections 508 and 255 and to achieve success in their efforts to develop, market, and buy accessible E&IT.
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Institute on Independent Living (Sweden)
Home of resources for international self-help organizations, global networking, training materials, library, discussion forums, and reviews.

Kyoyo-hin (Japan)
Home of the former E&C Project, design of products, IPOLOCO standard setting process, and examples.

Lifetime Homes/ Habinteg Housing Association (UK)
The Lifetime Home Standards are the result of careful study and research. They apply to both the interior and exterior of the home. Each of the 16 design features is valuable in itself, but a Lifetime Home is incomplete without all of the standards. Lifetime Homes make life as easy as possible, for as long as possible because they are thoughtfully designed. They are homes for everyone and bring benefits to anyone who lives in them because of the individual choices that they make possible. The flexibility and adaptability of Lifetime Homes accommodate life events quickly, cost-effectively and without upheaval.
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National Center for Accessibility (US)
A collaborative program of Indiana University and the National Park Service, the National Center on Accessibility is the nation’s premiere resource promoting access for people with disabilities in recreation. Through the comprehensive services of Research, Technical Assistance and Education, NCA focuses on universal design and practical accessibility solutions creating inclusive recreation opportunities for people of all abilities.
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National Center for Accessible Transportation (US)
This center addresses the need for research and development for improving access to public transportation for all. This is a mission both timely and important due to major changes in the travel industry and the need to adapt to those changes in a way that provides safe and dignified travel for persons with disabilities.
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National Center for Seniors' Housing Research (US)
The National Center for Seniors' Housing Research was established in the spring of 2000 by the NAHB Research Center in cooperation with the Administration on Aging of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The goal of the Center is to enable all Americans to continue to live comfortably, safely and independently in their own homes as they age regardless of income or ability level.
Hosts the annual Senior Housing Design Competition.

National Center on Educational Outcomes, Universally Designed Assessments (US)
The National Center on Educational Outcomes provides national leadership in the participation of students with disabilities in national and state assessments, standards-setting efforts, and graduation requirements. There is also a power-point presentation “Universally Designed English Proficiency and Content Area Assessments”

National Endowment for the Arts (US)
Universal Design Meeting Report, summary and recommendations of June 7-8, 1999 meeting.

National Resource Center on Supportive Housing and Home Modifications (US)
National and international resources, directory of home modification programs, library, news, links to government and private web sites on aging resources and services.

National Service Inclusion Project (US)
The website of the National Service Inclusion Project (NSIP), a Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS) training and technical assistance provider. NSIP builds connections between disability organizations and state commissions, offices, and service programs.
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Natural Learning Initiative (US)
The Natural Learning Initiative was created at the College of Design, NC State by designers Robin Moore and Nilda Cosco. It helps communities create stimulating places for play, learning, and environmental education -environments that recognize human dependence on the natural world. Site includes environmental exercises, projects, useful data, publications and liks to child-centered play and design organizations.
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PVA Architecture
PVA Architecture has developed a unique expertise on a wide variety of issues involving the special needs of our members—veterans of the armed forces who have experienced spinal cord injury or dysfunction. PVA's Architecture program promotes accessible design through technical assistance services, standards development, design guides, and building-code initiatives. Current topics include: Architecture, Standards and Design, Barrier-Free America, Accessible Home Design and Windows to the World. There is also the book “Accessible Home Design: Architectural Solutions for the Wheelchair User” (1999) available for purchase.
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Smart Thinking (UK)
This site outlines some of the features of smart technological housing as well as assistive technology and considers the role of dependable technology for disabled people. It looks at what dependability means within a home context and how technology can be considered as integrally a dependability feature.
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The Disability Rights and Independent Living Movement (US)
UC Berkeley's website on the Disability Rights and Independent Living Movement. A rich collection of primary sources exploring the social and political history of the disability movement from the 1960s to the present.

Tourism for All (UK)
Tourism for All UK is a national registered charity which provides information to people with disabilities and older people in relation to accessible accommodation and other tourism services, expertise and support to the tourism and hospitality sector to provide accessible services for all, and a network for organisations and individuals who wish to support our objectives. It includes a great page on “Advice for Tourism Businesses.”
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Trace R&D Center (US)
Home of the RERC on Telecommunications, Designing a More Usable World, wide range of information on accessible technology including Information Transaction Machines (ITMs), list discussion groups, and more.

Transgenerational Design Matters (US)
Transgenerational Design is the practice of making products and environments compatible with those physical and sensory impairments associated with human aging and which limit major activities of daily living. Transgenerational Design Matters is an independent non-profit corporation dedicated to the practice of making products and environments compatible with those physical and sensory impairments associated with human aging and which limit major activities of daily living.
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Universal Design Special Interest Section, IDSA (US)
Promotes those aspects of design that consider the needs of all possible users equally, regardless of age or ability with a mission of working toward Universal Design by: Increasing member's awareness of why and how to apply the concept of Universal Design in professional practice, Including consideration of people of all ages and abilities in the policies, activities, and programs of IDSA, Stimulating inclusion of Universal Design in design education, and Increasing public awareness of the role of design in meeting the needs of elders and people with disabilities.
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Universal Designers and Consultants (US)
Home of the Universal Design News, the Images of Universal Design Excellence, publications, and consulting services and resources.

Universally Designed Assessments (US)
The term “universally designed assessments” refers to learning-related assessments that are designed and developed from the beginning to be accessible and valid for the widest range of students, including students with disabilities and students with limited English proficiency. Like the curb cuts and ramps that grew out of environmental and architectural universal design, universally designed assessments are likely to make tests better for everyone.
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US Access Board (US)
The US Access Board is an independent federal agency that develops guidelines on a wide range of accessibility issues - from acoustics to vision. They infuse the spirit of universal design in much of their guidance. This is a very comprehensive web site.